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Главная » Статьи » Системное администрирование » Об ОС *Nix

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)



Dynamic Host
Configuration Protocol (DHCP)


The Dynamic
Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network service that enables
host computers to be automatically assigned settings from a server as
opposed to manually configuring each network host. Computers configured
to be DHCP clients have no control over the settings they receive from
the DHCP server, and the configuration is transparent to the computer's
user.


Installation


At a terminal
prompt, enter the following command to install dhcpd:

sudo apt-get install dhcp3-server

You will probably
need to change the default configuration by editing /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf
to suit your needs and particular configuration.

You also need to edit /etc/default/dhcp3-server
to specify the interfaces dhcpd should listen to. By default it listens
to eth0.


Configuration


The error
message the installation ends with might be a little confusing, but the
following steps will help you configure the service:

Most commonly, what you want to do is assign an IP
address randomly. This can be done with settings as follows:

nano -w /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf

# Sample /etc/dhcpd.conf
# (add your comments here)
default-lease-time 600;
max-lease-time 7200;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
option broadcast-address 192.168.1.255;
option routers 192.168.1.254;
option domain-name-servers 192.168.1.1, 192.168.1.2;
option domain-name "mydomain.example";

subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
range 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.100;
range 192.168.1.150 192.168.1.200;
}

This
will result in the DHCP server giving a client an IP address from the
range 192.168.1.10-192.168.1.100 or 192.168.1.150-192.168.1.200. It will
lease an IP address for 600 seconds if the client doesn't ask for a
specific time frame. Otherwise the maximum (allowed) lease will be 7200
seconds. The server will also "advise" the client that it should use
255.255.255.0 as its subnet mask, 192.168.1.255 as its broadcast
address, 192.168.1.254 as the router/gateway and 192.168.1.1 and
192.168.1.2 as its DNS servers.

If you need
to specify a WINS server for your Windows clients, you will need to
include the netbios-name-servers option, e.g.

nano -w /etc/default/dhcp3-server

option netbios-name-servers 192.168.1.1; 


dhcp3-server and
multiple interfaces



multiple interfaces example



Interface


nano -w /etc/network/interfaces

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

mapping hotplug
script grep
map eth1

iface eth1 inet dhcp

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet static
address 10.152.187.1
netmask 255.255.255.0

auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet static
address 192.168.1.1
netmask 255.255.255.0
up /sbin/iwconfig wlan0 mode TTTTTT && /sbin/iwconfig wlan0 enc
restricted && /sbin/iwconfig wlan0 key [Y] XXXXXXXX && /sbin/iwconfig
wlan0 essid SSSSSSSS

auto eth1


Select Interface card


nano -w /etc/default/dhcp3-server

INTERFACES="wlan0 eth0"


Configure Subnet


nano -w /etc/dhcp3/dhcpd.conf

ddns-update-style none;
log-facility local7;

subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

option routers 192.168.1.1;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
option broadcast-address 192.168.1.255;
option domain-name-servers 194.168.4.100;
option ntp-servers 192.168.1.1;
option netbios-name-servers 192.168.1.1;
option netbios-node-type 2;
default-lease-time 86400;
max-lease-time 86400;

host bla1 {
hardware ethernet DD:GH:DF:E5:F7:D7;
fixed-address 192.168.1.2;
}
host bla2 {
hardware ethernet 00:JJ:YU:38:AC:45;
fixed-address 192.168.1.20;
}
}

subnet 10.152.187.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

option routers 10.152.187.1;
option subnet-mask 255.255.255.0;
option broadcast-address 10.152.187.255;
option domain-name-servers 194.168.4.100;
option ntp-servers 10.152.187.1;
option netbios-name-servers 10.152.187.1;
option netbios-node-type 2;

default-lease-time 86400;
max-lease-time 86400;

host bla3 {
hardware ethernet 00:KK:HD:66:55:9B;
fixed-address 10.152.187.2;
}
}


Check Route


route -n

Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Ref Use Iface
192.168.1.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 wlan0
82.16.TT.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth1
10.152.187.0 0.0.0.0 255.255.255.0 U 0 0 0 eth0
0.0.0.0 82.16.TT.UU 0.0.0.0 UG 0 0 0 eth1


Источник: https://help.ubuntu.com/community/dhcp3-server
Категория: Об ОС *Nix | Добавил: admin (30.06.2010)
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