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GNOME desktop components:
GNOME desktop components:



GNOME core components include:


  • Control Center: This collection of applications customizes
    the GNOME environment.
  • gnome-panel
    : This application provides the tool bar and menu
    system to launch applications and host panel applets.
    Panel also interfaces with session manager (gnome-session)

    when exiting the desktop.
    Panel also interfaces with session-manager when exiting the desktop
    and managing "saved" sessions when launching the desktop.
  • nautilus
    : Manages desktop icons and provides a file manager.
  • gdm
    : GNOME Display Manager (login screen) This handles X-Authentication,
    netwrk desktop access (XDMCP), graphical login prompt, logos, ...
  • GNOME
    VFS
    : Uses mime types for transparent file access.
  • Window manager. None specified. Can use Metacity, Sawfish,
    ...
  • Component management:

    • Bonobo:
      Components defined by gnome-dom Document Object Model (DOM) XML model.
    • ORBit:
      CORBA Object Request Broker (ORB). Makes onjects accessible.


      (Uses: /usr/bin/gnome-name-service)

All GNOME configuration files use XML representation.










GNOME desktop initialization:


If the system is configured to boot to run level 3 (console mode) the
X-Windows is started by the command xinit. If configured to
boot to
run level 5 then the gdm will be executed at system start-up.
The choice of using the KDE (kdm) or GNOME (gdm) login manager is set in
the
config file /etc/sysconfig/desktop. There are two options:


  • DESKTOP="GNOME"


    (Configure with: /usr/sbin/gdmsetup)


    or
  • DISPLAYMANAGER="KDE"

GDM Startup:

  1. X-Windows command xinit:

    • /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc


      which sets the environment and calls:
    • /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc-common


      which set the root window, sets resource files for the:

      • keyboard (/etc/X11/Xmodmap)
      • fonts (/etc/X11/Xresources)
      • ...

      and executes X-Windows start-up scripts
      in /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc.d/...

    • /etc/X11/xinit/xinput.d/...


      language configurations ...


  2. The login screen: /usr/bin/gdm
  3. X-windows script /etc/X11/xdm/Xsession starts
    X-windows session
    and then calls /usr/bin/gnome-session
  4. gnome-session
    :
    This sets up GNOME desktop environment.

    Config file: /usr/share/gnome/default.session







    01# This is the default session that is launched if the user
    doesn't
    02# already have a session.
    03# The RestartCommand
    specifies the command to run from the $PATH.
    04# The Priority determines
    the order in which the commands are started
    05# (with Priority = 0 first)
    and defaults to 50.
    06# The id provides a name
    that is unique within this file and passed to the
    07# app as the client id
    which it must use to register with gnome-session.
    08# The clients must be
    numbered from 0 to the value of num_clients - 1.
    09 
    10[Default]
    11num_clients=7
    120,id=default0
    130,Priority=60
    140,RestartCommand=<b>pam-panel-icon</b>
    --sm-client-
    id default0
    151,id=default1
    161,Priority=10
    171,RestartCommand=<b>gnome-wm</b>
    --default-wm gnome-wm --sm-client-
    id
    default1
    182,id=default2
    192,Priority=40
    202,RestartCommand=<b>gnome-panel</b>
    --sm-client-
    id default2
    213,id=default3
    223,Priority=40
    233,RestartCommand=<b>nautilus</b>
    --no-default-window --sm-client-
    id
    default3
    244,id=default4
    254,Priority=60
    264,RestartCommand=<b>rhn-applet-gui</b>
    --sm-client-
    id default4
    275,id=default5
    285,Priority=50
    295,RestartCommand=<b>eggcups</b>
    --sm-client-
    id default5
    306,id=default6
    316,Priority=40
    326,RestartCommand=<b>magicdev</b>
    --sm-client-
    id default6

    This config file lists the GNOME processes to start.


    GUI configuration tools:


    • /usr/bin/gnome-session-properties



    • /usr/bin/gnome-session-remove
    • /usr/bin/gnome-session-save



    gnome-session executable and config file starts:


    • pam-panel-icon
    • gnome-wm
      (Script /usr/bin/gnome-wm to start window manager)


      Script also identified in config file: /usr/share/gnome/default.wm









      1[Default]
      2WM=gnome-wm


      Uses first window manager found in list in script: i.e. metacity sawfish sawmill
      enlightenment icewm wmaker fvwm2 qvwm fvwm twm kwm


      Gnome-wm also uses environment variable: WINDOW_MANAGER

      Script then uses gconftool to set gconf key.
      (gconf key: /desktop/gnome/applications/window_manager/default)
      Also starts omf

      Configure with /usr/bin/gnome-session-properties

    • gnome-panel
      (toolbar)


      Configure with gnome-panel-properties-capplet


      Add launcher with gnome-panel-add-launcher
    • nautilus
      : Manages desktop icons and provides a file manager.
    • rhn-applet-gui : up2date and network alert
      notification tool.
    • eggcups : printer support
    • magicdev


      CD and DVD mounter. Config tool: gnome-cd-properties


      Config files:

      • /etc/gconf/schemas/magicdev.schemas
      • /usr/share/applications/gnome-cd-properties.desktop

    Also uses ~/.gnome/session (Mine is empty)

    Can save with save-session for later start-up.


GDM commands:


  • GDM Configuration GUI: /usr/sbin/gdmconfig (same as
    gdmsetup)



  • Re-Start:

    • Red Hat/Fedora Core: /usr/sbin/gdm-restart


      /usr/sbin/gdm-safe-restart
    • S.u.S.e.: /opt/gnome/sbin/gdm-restart


      /opt/gnome/sbin/gdm-safe-restart

  • Stop:

    • Red Hat/Fedora Core: /usr/sbin/gdm-stop
    • S.u.S.e.: /opt/gnome/sbin/gdm-stop


Components: ORBit: CORBA drag-drop Uses libgnorba for CORBA registry
which calls gnome-name-service.
gnome-name-service - Orbit name service GOAD is the GNOME Object
Activation
Directory.
It keeps track of the CORBA object implementations on system.



Red Hat / Fedora Packages: usermode-gtk gnome-session magicdev
gnome-panel



Also see the YoLinux
init process tutorial











GNOME user configuration files and directories:


The GNOME desktop will generate the following configuration files and
directories in the users home directory:

















































File/Directory Description
.esd_auth [File] Enlightened Sound Daemon (ESD) authentication
cookie.
.gconf [Directory] User preferences stored here.
.gconfd [Directory] gconfd daemon information stored here.
CORBA IOR and object info.
.gnome [Directory] User info not held in .gconf. i.e. mime
type info.
.gnome2 [Directory] User info not held in .gconf. i.e.
Window location, keyboard shortcut info, ...
.gnome-private [Directory] Empty. Not used??
.gnome2-private [Directory] Empty. Not used??
Desktop

.gnome-desktop (older RH 8/9)
[Directory] Desktop icons and
application launchers.
.nautilus [Directory] Nautilus file manager data.
.thumbnails [Directory] Thumbnail images generated and used by
Nautilus.
.metacity [Directory] Metacity window manager data.
.themes [Directory] Theme options, window frame options, ...
.screensaver [Directory] Screensaver configuration
data.

Command to set defaults: xscreensaver-demo

Command to control xscreensaver process: xscreensaver-command

System configuration data stored in: /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/XScreenSaver










Configuration Tool GConf:


GConf is used by GNOME to expose settings to multiple applications.
GConf is the GNOME way of persisting application settings and should be
used by
GNOME application programmers. GConf includes notification service
alerts to
applications to changes in configuration data, and is used by GNOME
itself.
A command line tool (gconftool, FC3 /usr/bin/gconftool-2)
and a simple GUI application (gconf-editor) are supplied to
facilitate administration.






gconf-editor










Configuration Commands:


GNOME primary configuration GUI tool: gnome-control-center













































































































Command Description
GNOME Configuration and Properties

(This single command ties in most of the commands below into a single
GUI.)
/usr/bin/gnome-control-center
GNOME Display Properties

(X-Windows resolution)
/usr/bin/gnome-display-properties
GNOME Window Properties

(X-Windows Properties)
/usr/bin/gnome-window-properties
GNOME Desktop Keyboard Properties /usr/bin/gnome-accessibility-keyboard-properties
(RH 9.0, FC 1/2/3)
GNOME Desktop Keybinding Properties /usr/bin/gnome-keybinding-properties (RH 9.0, FC
1/2/3)
GNOME Desktop Keyboard Layout /usr/bin/gnome-keyboard-layout (FC 3)
GNOME Desktop Keyboard Properties /usr/bin/gnome-keyboard-properties (FC 3)
GNOME Mouse Properties /usr/bin/gnome-mouse-properties (FC 3)
GNOME Desktop Network Configuration /usr/bin/gnome-network-preferences (RH 9.0, FC
1/2/3))
GNOME Sound Properties /usr/bin/gnome-sound-properties (RH 9.0, FC 1/2/3)
GNOME Volume Control /usr/bin/gnome-volume-control (FC 3)
GNOME Volume Properties

Device specific)
/usr/bin/gnome-volume-properties (FC 3)
GNOME Audio Profiles (CD quality, ...) /usr/bin/gnome-audio-profiles-properties (FC 3)
GNOME Theme Manager (Desktop look) /usr/bin/gnome-theme-manager (FC 3)
GNOME Background Properties (Wallpaper) /usr/bin/gnome-background-properties (FC 3)
GNOME Bluetooth Manager /usr/bin/gnome-bluetooth-manager (FC 3)
GNOME desktop options and GNOME
applications configuration
/usr/bin/gconf-editor (RH 8.0+ ... FC 3)
GNOME desktop properties configuration /usr/bin/gnome-session-properties (RH 8.0+)

(Use gnome-session-save or select save on exit to store settings. If you
mess up, delete $HOME/.gnome2/session*.)
GNOME desktop Character Map
configuration
/usr/bin/gnome-character-map (FC 3)
GNOME desktop font configuration

(run as root)
/usr/bin/redhat-update-gnome-font-install (RH 9.0 -
FC 3)

/usr/bin/redhat-update-gnome-font-install2
GNOME Font properties /usr/bin/gnome-font-properties
GNOME Font Viewer /usr/bin/gnome-font-viewer
GNOME desktop properties save /usr/bin/gnome-session-save (RH 8.0+)
GNOME session properties /usr/bin/gnome-session-properties
GNOME Panel Preferences /usr/bin/gnome-panel-preferences (RH 8.0,9.0)

(Also see gnome-panel-screenshot)
GNOME Desktop User Interface Properties /usr/bin/gnome-ui-properties
GNOME Desktop File Types and Properties /usr/bin/gnome-file-types-properties (RH 9.0)
GNOME Desktop Item Edit /usr/bin/gnome-desktop-item-edit
GNOME Default Application Configuration

(Default web browser, Mail reader, ...)
/usr/bin/gnome-default-applications-properties
GNOME Default Printer /usr/bin/gnome-default-printer
GNOME Database Properties /usr/bin/gnome-database-properties
GNOME Help /usr/bin/gnome-help
GNOME About /usr/bin/gnome-about


Note: The S.u.s.e. distribution locates Gnome commands in /opt/gnome/bin/...
The Red Hat/Fedora distribution locates commands in /usr/bin/...
as described in the table above.



For a list of all Red Hat configuration commands (keyboard, sound, ...)
see the
YoLinux
Tutorial on Red Hat installation and system Re-Configuration



GNOME has also been stepping outside it's desktop world to include some
computer systems configuration. See: gnome-nettool



Commands for developers: /usr/bin/gnome-config (script), gnome-doc,
gnome-dump-metadata,
gnome-gen-mimedb, gnome-obex-send,
gnome-obex-server, gnome-theme-thumbnailer, gnome-thumbnail-font,
gnome-typing-monitor, gnome-vfs-config











GNOME Desktop Proxy configuration:


If your corporate environment uses a proxy (which so many do) then
configure the GNOME desktop to utilize this proxy.


  • Select "Start Here" Desktop icon. This will start the
    Nautilus configuration tool.
  • Select the "Preferences" icon.
  • Then select the "Network Proxy" icon.
  • HTTP Proxy: proxy.mega-corp.com Port: 80


    Also enter your proxy login and password.


One can also enter the command: /usr/bin/gnome-network-preferences



This enters the configuration in the file: /home/user1/.gconf/system/http_proxy/%gconf.xml











GNOME Keyboard Shortcuts:


















Shortcut Description
F1 Launch Gnome help system. If pressed in a Gnome
aware application, the help document for the given application is
opened. Otherwise, the GNOME main help page is opened.
F2 Raise the current window to the top of the desktop
or to the foreground. This is the same affect achieved by mouse
clicking on a window.
Menu Opens the main desktop menu. This key can be used
from within any GUI application. This key is located next to the Ctrl
key in the lower-right part of the keyboard.










GNOME Menus:


Location of ".desktop" Definition File:





Menus are specified by ".desktop" files located in one of the following
directories:
  • /usr/share/gnome/apps/
  • /etc/X11/applnk/
  • /usr/share/applnk/
  • $HOME/.gnome/apps/


    (Private menues)


Definition File: (".desktop")





Example desktop menu file for a single application: /usr/share/applications/gnome-gcalctool.desktop








01[Desktop Entry]
02Encoding=UTF-8
03Name=Calculator
04Name[ca]=Calculadora
05Name[it]=Calcolatrice
06...
07Comment=Perform calculations
08Comment[ca]=Calcula
09Comment[it]=Esegue vari
calcoli
10...
11Exec=gcalctool
12Icon=gnome-calculator
13Terminal=false
14Type=Application
15Categories=GNOME;Application;Utility;
16X-GNOME-DocPath=gcalctool/gcalctool.xml
17X-GNOME-Bugzilla-Bugzilla=GNOME
18X-GNOME-Bugzilla-Product=gcalctool
19X-GNOME-Bugzilla-Component=general
20X-GNOME-Bugzilla-OtherBinaries=gnome-calculator
21X-Desktop-File-Install-Version=0.9
22OnlyShowIn=GNOME;


Note:
  • Icon file reference or explicit icon file name can be
    used:

    Icon=gnome-calculator

    or

    Icon=/usr/share/pixmaps/gnome-calculator.xpm
  • One can use the words true/false or numerical
    representation 1/0:

    Terminal=0


Notes:


  • Icon: Icons of various sizes but of the same name are
    all located in:

    • /usr/share/icons/Bluecurve/32x32/apps/gnome-calculator.png
    • /usr/share/icons/Bluecurve/16x16/apps/gnome-calculator.png
    • /usr/share/icons/Bluecurve/24x24/apps/gnome-calculator.png
    • /usr/share/icons/Bluecurve/36x36/apps/gnome-calculator.png
    • /usr/share/icons/Bluecurve/48x48/apps/gnome-calculator.png
    • /usr/share/icons/hicolor/32x32/apps/gnome-calculator.png
    • /usr/share/icons/hicolor/48x48/apps/gnome-calculator.png

  • Terminal: Two options

    1. true: Launch an ASCII text terminal in which to run application.
    2. false: Does not require a text terminal.

  • Type: Two options

    1. Application: This option starts an application
    2. Link: Link to file, folder (directory) or URL.

  • Categories: Item descriptions as specified by a standard
    category keyword in the desktop menu specification at FreeDesktop.org
  • X-GNOME-DocPath: File to display when user selects
    "Help" on application name.


KDE: /usr/share/applnk/Multimedia/RealPlayer.kdelnk













01[KDE Desktop Entry]
02Comment=RealPlayer
03SwallowTitle=
04SwallowExec=
05BinaryPattern=realplayer;RealPlayer;
06Name=RealPlayer8
07Exec=/usr/lib/RealPlayer8/realplay
08Icon=/usr/lib/RealPlayer8/rp7.xpm
09MiniIcon=/usr/lib/RealPlayer8/rp7mini.xpm
10TerminalOptions=
11Path=
12Type=Application
13Terminal=0
14MimeType=audio/x-pn-realaudio;audio/vnd.rn-realaudio;





Sub-Menus:



Definition file:
  • /usr/share/desktop-directories/Accessories.directory
  • /usr/share/gnome/vfolders/Accessories.directory









01[Desktop Entry]
02Name=Accessories
03Name[ca]=Accessoris
04Name[it]=Accessori
05...
06Comment=Desktop accessories
07Comment[ca]=Accessoris
d'escriptori
08Comment[it]=Accessori desktop
09...
10Icon=redhat-accessories.png
11Type=Directory
12Encoding=UTF-8







Notes:


  • List order of menu items:

    • GNOME specifies with the ".order" file.
    • KDE is alphabetical

  • GNOME refreshes every read. KDE caches. Restart KDE to pick
    up changes.












GNOME Desktop Launcher:


Launch applications from a double click of a desktop icon by creating a
desktop launcher.



Right mouse click on the GNOME desktop and select "Create Launcher".



Create GNOME Desktop Launcher

This will generate the GNOME launch file ~/Desktop/launcher-name.desktop








01[Desktop Entry]
02Encoding=UTF-8
03Version=1.0
04Type=Application
05Exec=/path/to/command command
arguments
06TryExec=/path/to/command-to-execute-first
command arguments
07X-GNOME-DocPath=
08Terminal=true
09Name[en_US]=name-of-launcher
10Comment[en_US]=This is a
comment



Methods of executing a command from within a given path:
  • Execute string of commands as one bash command:







    Type=Application
    Terminal=true
    Exec=bash -c "cd /dir/path;/command/path/exe"
    ...


  • Specify path:







    Type=Application
    Terminal=true
    Path=/dir/path
    Exec=/path/to/command command arguments
    ...














Nautilus:













Pitfalls:



  • Check for errors in the file $HOME/.xsession-errors
  • Fix the error: "Failed to activate
    'OAFID:GNOME_SettingsDaemon
    "
    This annoying dialog box may appear after one logs in. Themes, sounds
    or background may cease to operate properly. You may also get the error
    message "The Settings Daemon restarted too many times."

    To fix this condition run the script: /usr/bin/oaf-slay


    This script will kill OAF processes on systems using OAF and bonobo.


  • Everything messed up for user1! As root in console
    mode (ctrl-alt-F1)

    • init 3
    • cd /home/user1
    • rm -Rf .gtkrc .esd_auth .gconf .gconfd .gnome
      .gnome2 .gnome-private .gnome2-private .nautilus .thumbnails .metacity
      .themes .screensaver

    • cp -R /etc/skel/.gtkrc .
    • chown user1.user1 .gtkrc
    • rm -Rf /tmp/gconfd-user1 /tmp/orbit-user1
    • init 5

  • I was getting an error dialog box each time I attempted to
    launch gnome-terminal. I had the environment variable
    LD_LIBRARY_PATH pointing to a conflicting set of libraries
    and
    exported GNOME applications registering to my desktop.
    It was fixed using the above technique (file and directory cleanup),
    unsetting the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH and
    restarting
    X-Windows. (init 3 then init 5).

    The error if I start from an "xterm" was:










    (gnome-terminal:1354): GLib-GObject-WARNING **: cannot create instance of
    abstract (non-instantiable) type `GtkWidget'


  • Fixing just the GNOME panel:

    • killall gnome-panel
    • rm $HOME/.gnome/panel
    • gnome-panel &

  • Using the window manager on a second and separate monitor.
    I personally recommend using a single desktop for two monitors but if
    separate:
    • DISPLAY=:0.1 sh -c 'sawfish& gnome-panel&'

  • Desktop launcher icons: (located in ~/Desktop/application-name.desktop)


    Problem: When you use a file server to provide a single home directory
    for multiple distros and versions of Linux, one quickly finds that the
    icons from system to system are NOT located in the same directory path,
    nor are the icons all available on all systems.

    Solution: Create a local icons directory (~/DesktopIcons).
    Copy icons to this directory and reference them in your launcher.










Links:




Related YoLinux Tutorials:




Источник: http://www.yolinux.com/TUTORIALS/GNOME.html
Категория: Об ОС *Nix | Добавил: admin (24.05.2010)
Просмотров: 1414 | Рейтинг: 0.0/0
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